RAMP’s: G-Protein coupled receptor accessory proteins with vital biological roles

Posted by & filed under Antibodies, Peptides, All Blogs, GPCRs.

Receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) are a family of single-transmembrane receptor accessory proteins which include RAMP-1, RAMP-2 and RAMP-3 that are involved in several cellular pathways of high importance. Here at Discovery Antibodies® we offer high-quality specific antibodies to each of the three RAMP proteins which are able to detect their target proteins in Western blot… Read more »

Histone mutations play important roles in DNA organisation

Posted by & filed under All Blogs, Post-Translational Modifications, Histones.

Histone proteins help compact and organise the DNA of the nucleus, they also play key roles in orchestrating gene expression. The four core histones, H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 form a complex around which DNA is wound forming the nucleosome. Between the nucleosome is the internucleosomal DNA which is stabilised by the linker histone H1. Modifications of histones can alter the nature… Read more »

The diverse role of cell cycle regulator, p21

Posted by & filed under All Blogs, Cell Signalling.

The multi-functional cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, p21 plays a diverse role in regulating the DNA damage response, senescence, DNA repair, transcription and apoptosis. p21, also known as p21WAF1/Cip1 or CDKN1A, belongs to the CIP/Kip family of CDK inhibitors. In normal cells, p21 functions as a cell cycle inhibitor and anti-proliferative effector. Upon DNA damage and… Read more »

Succinocysteine: a PTM and Biomarker of Complex Cellular Dysfunction

Posted by & filed under All Blogs, Post-Translational Modifications.

Image above shows the succination reaction which creates the succinocysteine modification. Protein succination is a post-translational modification formed by a reaction between the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate fumarate with protein cysteines to form S-(2-succino)cysteine (2SC). Cysteine predominantly exists in the thiolate form and can acts as a reactive nucleophile. Cysteine succination can occur non-enzymatically and… Read more »

The role of β-Amyloid Peptides in Alzheimer’s Disease

Posted by & filed under Discovery Peptides, Neurodegenerative Disease, All Blogs.

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease and the most common cause of dementia. AD is characterised by progressive cognitive decline and memory dysfunction.   The two major histopathological lesions in AD are senile plaques composed of diverse beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptide aggregates and neurofibrillary tangles composed of tau proteins aggregates.  The dysregulation of Aβ production, folding, clearance… Read more »

CTLA-4 and its Role in Immune Homeostasis

Posted by & filed under All Blogs, Immunology.

Cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated gene-4 (CTLA-4), also known as CD152, is a type I glycoprotein that belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. CTLA-4 is required for immune homeostasis as it functions as a checkpoint for T-cell activation and a critical inhibitor of autoimmunity. CTLA-4 is constitutively expressed in Foxp3+ regulatory T cells, where it mediates cell extrinsic… Read more »

Anti-Microbial Peptides: Focus on LL-37

Posted by & filed under Anti-Microbial peptides, Blog, Discovery Peptides, Peptide Research, All Blogs.

Cathelicidins form a distinct class of proteins that are key components of the innate and adaptive immune response. They also play a role in apoptosis, inflammation, phagocytosis and angiogenesis. The hallmark of the cathelicidin family of proteins is the presence of a highly conserved cathelin domain. Cathelicidins are expressed as inactive precursor proteins and their… Read more »

Peptide Substrates: Insulysin FRET substrate [Mca]/[Dnp]

Posted by & filed under Blog, Discovery Peptides, Peptide Substrates, SPECTRUM Peptides: Fluorescent Labelled Peptides, All Blogs.

Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) peptides are convenient tools for the study of peptidase specificity and enzymatic activity. The Insulysin FRET substrate [Mca]/[Dnp] is a synthetic insulysin peptide substrate that contains an N-terminal fluorescent 7-methoxycoumarin (Mca) group and a C-terminal 2, 4-dinitrophenyl (Dnp) quencher; the FRET peptide exhibits internal fluorescence quenching when intact. Hydrolysis of… Read more »